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美感與諷喻:杜甫〈麗人行〉詩的圖像演繹

Bylofen

1 月 26, 2009

(傳) 李公麟 「麗人行」圖卷

杜甫〈麗人行〉詩,以三月三日遊春踏青的情景,形象生動地描述了楊貴妃姐妹恃寵而驕,與楊國忠的專權妄為。
後世以「麗人行」為題目的繪畫,依其表現形式,可略分為兩類:
一是鞍馬畫,例如現存最早,題為北宋畫家李公麟(1049-1106)的作品,以及受此畫卷影響的續作,有清代方乾、清皇室「舊王孫」溥心畬(1896-1963 )。
另一種為仕女畫,例如傅抱石(1904-1965 )、陸儼少(1909-1993) 、程十髮(1921-2007)等人,均畫過「麗人行」圖。
本文首先考察〈麗人行〉詩是否具有「可畫性」,即詩人的筆法是否為讀者構設了一個畫面的想像空間,這種「宛在眼前」的「可畫性」因素雖然不是畫家所依賴的必要條件,但能夠為我們提供「詩中有畫」的參酌背景。
其次,依序列舉鞍馬畫與仕女畫的「麗人行」圖。在鞍馬畫部分,著重溥心畬對題為李公麟作品的繼承以及畫意的別解。在仕女畫部分,則以傅抱石的作品為核心,考慮歷史題材如何滲透人心,反映時事。
最後,將探討繪畫的視覺美感是否能達到杜詩的諷喻作用。

(香港)《研訊學刊》第15期(2009年10月),頁26-40。

Parables and an aesthetic sense: the pictorial depiction of Dufu’s poem “Lirenxing”

In Dufu’s poem “Lirenxing”, he told a vivid story of Yang Guifei’s power-abusing brother, Yang Guozhong, and her pampered, arrogant sisters on a pleasurable springtime excursion.

Thereafter, the poem inspired paintings which were also titled “Lirenxing”. Judging by form of expression, the paintings can be classified into two main categories:

First, the “horse paintings”. An example would be the art piece by a Northern Song painter, Li Gonglin (1049-1106), which is also the oldest existing horse painting. Other examples include works by painters of the Qing Dynasty, such as Pu Xinyu (1896-1963) – a descendant of the Qing imperial family, and Fang Qian. Both painters were well influenced by the Li Gonglin.

The second category consists of the “paintings of beautiful women”. Examples of such painters include Fu Baoshi (1904-1965), Lu Yanshao (1909-1993) and Cheng Shifa (1921-2007).

This paper begins by studying the “vividness” of the Lirenxing poem, which, in other words, is the poet’s ability to conjure up images in his readers’ minds. Such vividness may not be an absolutely essential factor that painters depend on in the production of a painting; it does, however, allow us to deliberate the idea of a “painting in a poem”.

Next, the “horse paintings” and the “paintings of beautiful women” are enumerated in order. For the horse paintings, the discussion is focused mainly on Pu Xinyu’s succession of Li Gonglin’s version of “Lirenxing”, as well as the different interpretations of the two paintings. As for the paintings of beautiful women, the discussion centres on Fu Baoshi’s works, analysing the influence of historical themes and how they reflect current events.

Finally, the paintings will be compared to Dufu’s poem, in attempt to determine whether they serve to convey ideas and messages as the poem does.

By lofen