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漂流與回歸:宋代題「瀟湘」山水畫詩之抒情底蘊

Bylofen

1 月 26, 2009

「瀟湘」山水畫萌芽於唐代,成熟於宋代,本文旨在分析宋代題寫「瀟湘」山水畫詩之內容及其抒情特質,並嘗試對其抒情表現提出詮解,重點在於詩人如何欣賞「瀟湘」山水畫,藉圖象而引發怎樣的情感反應。

既然題畫詩是為繪畫而作,在進入本文核心議題之前,必須對於宋代的「瀟湘」山水畫有所認識,以作為理解題詠文字的視覺前提,並且經由重新審視和歸納宋代「瀟湘」山水畫作的創作現象,得知詩人題寫的共同精神,本文以米友仁「瀟湘奇觀圖卷」與「瀟湘白雲圖卷」為例,探討「瀟湘」山水畫創作的「在地化」情形,以及「抽象化」發展的趨勢。

畫家「在地化」與「抽象化」的處理「瀟湘」山水,詩人觀賞畫作時也從視覺經驗與文化記憶中召喚超越湖南地方意識的普世情感,其情感的內涵依題畫詩的寫作可概分為「客旅之愁」、「望歸之情」、與「漁隱之樂」三種類型。

除了指出作者的抒情現象,筆者也試圖由「瀟湘客」、「歸雁」的文學意象、「遠望當歸」和「黃昏思歸」的心理結構立論,並且以南宋王洪「瀟湘八景圖」之「平沙落雁」與「遠浦歸帆」為觀看實例,理解詩人因圖象內容而產生的「漂流之感」以及「回歸之心」。

《中國文哲研究集刊》第21期(2002年9月),頁1-42。

Drifting and the Return—The Texture of Feelings in the Poems on Xiaoxiang Landscape Paintings from the Song Dynasty

Xiaoxiang landscape paintings first appeared in the Tang dynasty and reached maturity in the Song. This article examines the contents and the lyrical elements in the poems on the Xiaoxiang landscape paintings by Song poets. It probes the lyricism of the poets, to see how they appreciate the Xiaoxiang landscape paintings, and the texture of feelings induced by the visual qualities of the paintings.

Since poems on paintings are written on and for the paintings, an understanding of Xiaoxiang paintings of the Song is the visual premise for interpreting the colophons. A survey of the Xiaoxiang landscape paintings is in order; an understanding of the creative processes of the Song painters points to the common reservoir that the painters and the poets draw on. We take as examples Mi Youren’s Xiaoxiang qiguan tujuan and Xiaoxiang baiyun tujuan to discuss the “indigenizing” and the “abstracting” tendencies in the development of Xiaoxiang landscape paintings.

The painters treat the Xiaoxiang paintings through “indigenization” and “abstraction,” and the poets, contemplating the visual experiences and the cultural memories behind them, conjure up universalized feelings that transcend the local sense of Hunan. These feelings, as revealed in the colophons, are of three types: (1) the sorrows of a traveler; (2) the desire to return; and (3) the joy of being a hermit-fisherman.

Besides discussing the lyrical expression of the poets, this paper also explores the psychological implications of “the melancholy of a traveler” and “the desire to return,” themes which appear in the colophons on the basis of the paintings’ graphic contents. We explore these elements by analyzing the literary images of “a Xiaoxiang traveler” and “the returning geese,” as well as the mental dimensions of the motifs “the urge to return while looking at the distance” and “the desire to go home in the dusk.” We will use the Southern Song painter Wang Hong’s works, Eight Views of Xiaoxiang, Wild Geese on the Beach, and Returning Boat from the River Mouth, as examples.

Bulletin of the Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy, No.21 (Sep. 2002), pp. 1-42.

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