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戰火與清遊:赤壁圖題詠論析

Bylofen

1 月 26, 2009

描繪蘇軾前後〈赤壁賦〉與〈念奴嬌.赤壁懷古〉等作品內容的繪畫稱為「赤壁圖」,自南宋以來,畫家創作「赤壁圖」不輟,詩人觀覽「赤壁圖」則往往題詠讚頌,赤壁詞賦/赤壁圖象/赤壁圖題詠構成多重的創作鍊,呈現圖象脈絡與文字脈絡併行、交合與背離的多面現象。

本文分為三個部份,首先從「赤壁圖」展演赤壁之遊的情形觀察,得知其圖象形態基本上有故實敘事畫和山水畫兩種,而以山水畫式的作品較多,早期赤壁圖的製作還依循東坡的文意,揣摩實情實景,後來漸漸獨立發展,畫家以表現個人的藝術風格為尚,時空背景趨近於畫家當代,尤其是明代吳門畫派的作品,相當帶有江南的地域特色,洋溢文人遊山玩水的趣味。

論文第二部份談的是赤壁圖題詠的內容,依其所寫作的趨向,分為偏重於主寫東坡,側寫周瑜和曹操的「風流人物」、遙想三國歷史,批曹擁孔的「故國神遊」、以及因畫抒懷,詠嘆興廢的「古今如夢」三個子題。

繼而從「歷史陳蹟」和「故地重遊」的觀點,論述赤壁圖題詠所呈現的文化內涵,以及「赤壁」這個地理名詞的「時間化」現象,所導致的「赤壁」的文化象徵。

《故宮學術季刊》第18卷第4期(2001年夏),頁63-102。

Fiery Battles and Pure Wanderings: Illustrating the ‘Eulogies of the Red Cliff’

Depictions of Su Shih’s “Ode to the Red Cliff “(ch’ih pi fu 赤壁賦), “Remembering the Red Cliff” to the tune of Nien Nu-chiao (ch’ih pi huai ku 赤壁懷古), and other literary works written in commemoration of the famous Three Kingdoms battle site are generally referred to as Illustrations of the Red Cliff (ch’ih pi t’u 赤壁圖). Such illustrations became a prominent painting theme in the Southern Sung. Over the subsequent centuries, Chinese painters repeatedly returned to the theme of the Red Cliff, producing countless works upon which poets in turn inscribed their praises. Literary verses on the Red Cliff, painted depictions of these verses, and inscriptions on these paintings together form a creative chain that presents a multi-facetted pattern of at times parallel, interrelated, and/or deviating images and words.

The present essay is divided into three sections. The first examines the development of Red Cliff paintings, the forms of which can be divided into two types – narrative and landscape depictions. Landscape illustrations, which compose the dominant group, in the beginning tended to follow Su Shih’s text quite closely, speculating at the image conveyed by his words. In later period, the theme gradually began to develop in independent directions, as painters placed more importance on presenting their own individual styles. The arrangement of time and space in these later works tends to reflect the contemporary surroundings of the painter. This is especially true of the works of the Ming dynasty Wu school, based in Soochow, which are imbued with the characteristics of the Chiang-nan environment and replete with the flavor of literati wanderings among mountains and streams. The second section of the paper deals with the thematic content, or literary direction, of Red Cliff illustrations. It divides the words into three literary categories: those that emphasize famous personalities, specifically Su Tung-p’o and, to a lesser exent, Ts’ao Ts’ao and Chou Yü; those that recall the history of the Three Kingdoms, condemning Ts’ao Ts’ao and honoring K’ung-ming, to the effect of “Spirit Wanderings in Old Kingdoms” (ku kuo shen yu 故國神遊); and those that use painting for lyric effect, lamenting the rise and fall of “the past, today just a dream” (ku chin ju meng 古今如夢). The essay concludes with a discussion of the concepts of “history’s tracks” (li-shih ch’en chi 歷史陳蹟) and “wandering in the lands of old” (ku ti ch’ung yu 故地重遊), as they pertain to both the cultural meanings presented through depictions of the Red Cliff and the symbolism of the site as it has developed over time.

The National Palace Museum Research Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 4 (Summer 2001), pp. 63-102.

By lofen