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寫真與寫意:從唐至北宋題畫詩的發展論宋人審美意識的形成

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1 月 26, 2009

宋 崔白 雙喜圖

「寫真」與「寫意」是中國美學的兩個重要命題,筆者研究唐宋題畫詩,發現唐人強調「寫真」,宋人推崇「寫意」,「寫真」與「寫意」恰可以代表「唐型文化」與「宋型文化」的審美精神,筆者希望從時代審美精神為理解唐宋文化的切入點,因此著力於二者之思想內涵,然而,欲論析「寫真」與「寫意」,又必須釐清由「重寫真」到「尚寫意」的歷史脈絡,於是以題畫詩為文本,依其發展之進程分為「以畫為真,感神通靈」、「筆侔造化,心生萬象」、「形意俱足,生意盎然」、「忘形得意,意外之趣」四個子題探討。

筆者以為:安史之亂是扭轉「以真贊畫」之題畫詩書寫模式,結束繪畫「感神通靈」崇拜的分水嶺,題畫詩的作者意識到繪畫創作對應的不僅是審美客體,重心不在如何具現單一的物象,而是創生萬物的造化自然,畫家以筆傳達造化之實然,其筆下的世界又是由其心源而來,故而可以隨手生花,以畫留春。

中晚唐興起的水墨畫,衝擊了應物象形的色彩觀念,產生視覺美感的新價值取向,創作水墨畫的逸品畫家的舞筆弄墨使得文人注意到其個人意氣與創作之「立意」,可視為宋人尚意之先聲,晚唐五代的題畫詩圍繞著尋求新的因應與品賞之道的話題,其理念之完善則有待於宋人的文化素養來建構。

北宋仁宗朝左右,政治上的革新帶動了文化上的進展,在審美思想方面,除了繼續晚唐知曉畫家意氣,體察作品用意的鑑賞方式,還注重觀賞畫作之「生意」,將複製形相的「擬真」帶入了「合於天造」,窮究生命要義的層次,過去「形」「神」對舉的命題在宋代轉為「形」「意」並論,歐陽修「忘形得意」的主張,以及蘇軾、蘇轍、黃庭堅等人尋求作品的意外之趣,共同開創了崇尚「蕭條淡泊」、「簡遠清新」的審美意識。

筆者發現:從唐人「重寫真」到宋人「尚寫意」,其實是繪畫藝術逐步脫離其物質特性,向文學品鑑靠攏,亦即拋卻純粹欣賞視覺美感,轉向人文思致與畫外意趣,以文學寫作的「意」統攝繪畫審美的過程。

中國文哲研究集刊第18期(2001年3月),頁41-90。

Verisimilitude and Abstraction: A Discussion of Sung aesthetics according to the Development of Poetry on Painting from the T’ang to the Song dynasty

Verisimilitude and abstraction are two important concepts in Chinese aesthetics. In the course of the study of Sung and T’ang poetry on painting, the author discovered that T’ang writers emphasized verisimilitude while Sung ones praised abstraction. Thus these two categories can be seen as representative of the aesthetics spirit of the T’ang and the Sung dynasty respectively. But it is also important to understand the historical development that shifted the emphasis from verisimilitude to abstraction, and this is what the author sets out to do in this piece, by studying the development of poetry on painting. After presenting the historical background and the changes in aesthetic sense, the author concludes that the Sung move towards abstraction is a consequence of the departure from realistic depictions in painting towards more literary forms of representations. This more abstract type of representations would lead the observer to a literary concept and meaning to be found beyond the picture expressed in the painting.

Bulletin of the Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy, No. 18 (Mar.2001), pp. 41-90.

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