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宮素然「明妃出塞圖」及其題詩──視覺文化角度的推想

Bylofen

5 月 17, 2009

宮素然「明妃出塞圖」現藏日本大阪市立美術館,原為東洋紡績株式會社社長阿部房次郎(1868-1937)之收藏。在阿部房次郎之前,收藏或經眼過者,包括梁清標(1620-1691) 、錢杜(1763-約1844)、陸學源(晚清人)、景其濬(咸豐二年〔1852〕進士)、完顏景賢(清末民初人)、顏世清(1873-1929)等人。
「明妃出塞圖」為紙本水墨畫,縱30.2公分,橫160.2公分,全幅可分為前導及執旗二人(一小駒尾隨)、明妃及侍女(前有兩位隨從)、護駕七人、殿後一人(旁有一犬)四個段落,其後有明代陸勉、張錫和孫寧三人的題詩。
歷來關於本圖的研究,主要集中於三個方面:
1. 畫家宮素然的身份。(是否為女道士?)
2. 本圖的繪製時代。(宋、金、金末元初、元、明清)
3. 本圖與金代張瑀「文姬歸漢圖」之比較。(兩幅作品構圖十分類似)
本文希望在前輩學者的研究基礎之上,從視覺文化的角度,探討以下議題:
1. 由王昭君故事衍生的文學與圖畫的政治隱喻及意涵。
2. 本圖之製作背景、目的、及其與當時政治事件之關係。
3. 本圖三則明人題詩的圖象解讀策略。

張高評主編:「近世文學國際學術研討會論文集」之二「金元明文學之整合研究」(臺北市:新文豐出版公司,2007年3月),頁67-124。

Gong Su Ran’s painting of Wang Zhao Jun: In visional culture. In Zhang, Gao-ping ed., International Conference of Pre-Modern Literature(Taipei: Shin Wen Feng Print Co, 2007),pp. 67-124.

Gong Su Ran’s Painting of Wang Zhao Jun and the Colophon:
In Visional Culture

Gong Su Ran’s Painting of Wang Zhao Jun is now being kept as a collection in the Osaka municipal Museum of Art. The painting has dimensions of 30.2cm in height and 160.2cm in length. The painting is divided into four parts: two men holding flags, Wang Zhao Jun and her servants, seven guards and lastly a man with a dog beside him. The painting includes three colophons which were written by Lu Mian, Zhang Xi and Sun Ning as well.

The research done on this painting was based on three aspects:
1: The identity of the painter Gong Su Ran. (The issue as to whether she was a Taoist Priestess)
2: The actual period when the painting was drawn. (Song Dynasty, Jin Dynasty, at the end of Jin Dynasty and beginning of Yuan Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty or Ming Qing Dynasty)
3: The comparison between the current painting and Jin Dynasty’s “Wen Ji Gui Han Tu” which was painted by Zhang Yu. (The structures for both paintings showed some similarities.)

The guidelines used to conduct research and studies on the paintings were the same as the foundation set up by the scholars of ancient times. The purpose of writing this article is to shed some light on the way of the painting’s culture and to discuss on the following issues:

1: The political metaphor and meaning behind the paintings and the literature which was derived from the story of Wang Zhao Jun.
2: The background of this painting and how it was related to the political incident at that time.
3: The strategy of analyzing that was used by the three poets who wrote the colophons for the painting.

By lofen