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北宋題人像畫詩析論

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1 月 26, 2009


(傳)〔宋」梁楷 李白行吟圖(東京國立博物館藏)

本文以北宋題人像畫詩為討論範圍,旨在分析北宋文人題寫人像畫之創作旨趣及其義涵,依畫作性質與書寫內容釐為三部份:「自題像」、「題時人像─以睢陽五老圖為例」和「題古人像」。

筆者發現:北宋文人在題寫個人畫像時未必著眼於畫家傳神摹擬的工力,而是「我看我,我亦非我」,兩我相映,感嘆吾身本為須臾,畫像亦非金石,興起對畫中自我如真似幻的迷惘。

在題時人像部份,以當時題詠篇什最多的「睢陽五老圖」次韻詩組為例,考察出以杜衍為首的睢陽五老之會宴集的時間大約在1047至1050年之間,1051年已經有「睢陽五老圖」面世,與五老會相去不遠。題寫「睢陽五老圖」的作者群大多與五老或其後人有交情,五老致仕榮歸,福壽綿延,是作者所崇敬與歆羨之處,也是環繞「睢陽五老圖」的集體思維。

至於題古人像,以詠文學家畫像最多,陶淵明、李白、杜甫是其最愛,畫家善於採取富於象徵意義的圖像元素營造文學氛圍,作者則妙筆生花,將文學氛圍再以文字示現,凝煉畫中人畢生的文學成就,表達對前輩文人的仰慕與追隨。

《中國文哲研究集刊》第13期(19989月),頁121-174

An Analytic Discussion of Portraiture Poetry in Northern Song Colophons

  This essay aims to analyze the creative intentions and implied meanings of literary people in the Northern Sung as they wrote inscriptions on portraiture. On the basis of the nature of the painting and the content of the writings, the essay is divided into three parts: inscriptions for portraiture of oneself; inscriptions for portraiture of contemporaries (taking the case of the Five Elders of Sui-yang as an example); and inscriptions for portraits of men of antiquity.
  The author has discovered that when the literary men of the Northern Sung wrote inscriptions for portraits of themselves, they did not necessarily focus on whether painterly skills had succeeded in representing the subject accurately and thereby conveying his spirit, but rather dealt with it in terms of“looking at myself, I am not really myself.” When two“I’s”reflect upon each other, the writer sighs about the transience of personal, bodily existence. Painting, too, is not made of stone or metal but is relatively transient. These sentiments inspire an imaginative network on the themes of the simultaneous semblance of portrayed individual existence to reality and to illusion
  The part about inscriptions for contemporaries uses for its main example the “Picture of the Five Elders of Sui-yang,”a group of verses which was used most often in the colophonic poetry of the time. It can be discovered through investigation that the time of the feast at which the Five Elders of Sui-yang, headed by Tu Yen, gathered was somewhere between 1047 and 1050. By 1051, there already was a“Picture of the Five Elders of Sui-yang,”not long after this meeting took place. The authors of the colophon to this “Picture of the Five Elders of Sui-yang”probably had personal acquaintance with these five elders or their descendants. The themes of continuing prosperity and longevity associated with the five elders resigning their official position and returning home in glory was what the authors respected and admired. This is the idea that surrounds the“Picture of the Five Elders of Sui-yang.”
  As for writing inscriptions about men of antiquity, most colophons were written about portraits of literary people; with such favorities as T’ao Yuan-ming, Li Pai and Tu Fu, the painters were good at extracting graphic elements rich in symbolic meaning in order to create a literary atmosphere. The authors indulge in language full of flowery virtuoso, so that the literary atmosphere can be represented in written language, casting into fixed form the literary achievements of the entire life of the person portrayed, and expressing veneration and devotion to their literary predecessors.

Bulletin of the Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy, No.13 (Sep. 1998), pp.121-174.

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